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2008年12月英语四级考试真题

 

本资源来自网络   作者:不详 



 

 

 

Part I writing (30 minutes)

注意:此部分试题在答题卡1

Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and scanning) (15 minutes)

Supersize surprise

Ask anyone why there is an obesity epidemic and they will tell you that it’s al down to eating too much and burning too few calories. That explanation appeals to common sense and has dominated efforts to get to the root of the obesity epidemic and reverse it/ yet obesity researchers are increasingly dissatisfied with it. Many now believe that something else must have changed in our environment to precipitate(促成) such dramatic rises in obesity over the past 40 years or so. Nobody is saying that the “big two” – reduced physical activity and increased availability of food – are not important contributors to the epidemic, but they cannot explain it all.Earlier this year a review paper by 20 obesity experts set out the 7 most plausible alternative explanations for the epidemic. Here they are.

1.       Not enough sleep

It is widely believed that sleep is for the brain, not the body. Could a shortage of shut-eye also be helping to make us fat?

Several large-scale studies suggest there may be a link. People who sleep less than 7 hours a night tend to have a higher body mass index than people who sleep more, according to data gathered by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Similarly, the US Nurses’ Health Study, which tracked 68,000 women for 16 years, found that those who slept an average of 5 hours a night gained more weight during the study period than women who slept 6 hours, who in turn gained more than whose who slept 7.

It’s well known that obesity impairs sleep, so perhaps people get fat first and sleep less afterwards. But the nurses’ study suggests that it can work in the other direction too: sleep loss may precipitate weight gain.

Although getting figures is difficult, it appears that we really are sleeping less. In 1960 people in the US slept an average of 8.5 hours per night. A 2002 poll by the National Sleep Foundation suggests that the average has fallen to under 7 hours, and the decline is mirrored by the increase in obesity.

2.       Climate control

We humans, like all warm-blooded animals, can keep our core body temperatures pretty much constant regardless of what’s going on in the world around us. We do this by altering our metabolic(新陈代新的) rate, shivering or sweating. Keeping warm and staying cool take energy unless we are in the “thermo-neutral zone”, which is increasingly where we choose to live and work.

There is no denying that ambient temperatures(环境温度) have changed in the past few decades. Between 1970 and 2000, the average British home warmed from a chilly 13C to 18C. In the US, the changes have been at the other end of the thermometer as the proportion of homes with air conditionings rose from 23% to 47% between 1978 and 1997. In the southern states – where obesity rates tend to be highest – the number of houses with air conditioning has shot up to 71% from 37% in 1978.

 

Could air conditioning in summer and heating in winter really make a difference to our weight?

Sadlythere is some evidence that it does-at least with regard to heating. Studies show that in comfortable temperatures we use less energy.

3.Less smoking

Bad news: smokers really do tend to be thinner than the rest of us,and quitting really does pack on the pounds, though no one isn sure why. It probably has something to do with the fact that nicotine is an appetite suppressant and appears to up your metabolic rate.

Katherine Flegal and colleagres at the US National Center for Health Statistics in Hyattsville,Maryland, have calculated that people kicking the habit have been respousible for a small but significant portion of the US epidemic of fatness.From data collected aroud 1991 by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,they worked out that people who had quit in the previous decade were much more likely to be overweight than smokers and people who had never smoked .Among men, for example, nearly half of quitters were overweight compared with 37% of non-smokers and only 28%of smokers.

4. Genetic effects

Yours chances of becoming fat may be set,at least in part,before you were even born.children of boese mothers are much more likely to become obest themselves later in life.Offspring of mice fed a high-fat diet during pregnancy are much more likely to become fat than the offspring of identical mice fed a normal diet. Intriguingly,the effect persists for two or three generations.Grand-children of mice fed a high-fat diet grow up fat even if their own mother is fed normally-so you fate may have been sealed even before you were conceived.

5.A little older…

Some groups of people just happen to be fatter than others.surveys carried out by the US national center for health statisties found that adults aged 40 to 79 were around three times as likely to be obese as younger people.non-white females also tend to fall at the fatter end of the spectreum:Mexican-american women are 30% more likely than white women to be obsess,and black women have twice the risk.

In the US,these groups account for an increasing percentage of the population.between 1970 and 2000 the US population aged 35 to 44 grew by 43%.the proportion of Hispanic-americans also grew,from under 5% to 12.5% of the population,while the proportion of black Americans increased from 11% to 12.3%.these changes may account in part for the increased prevalence of obesity.

6.mature mums

Mothers around the world are getting older.in the UK,the mean age for aving a frist child is 27.3,compared with 23.7 in 1970 .mean age at frist birth in the US has also increased, rising from 21.4 in 1970 to 24.9 in 2000.

This would be neither here nor there if it were’t for the observation that having an older mother seems to be an independent risk factor for obesity. Results from the US national heart,lung and blood institute’s study found that the odds of a child being obese increase 14% for every five extra years of their mother’s age , though why this should be so is not entirely clear.

Michael Symonds at the university of Nottingham,UK,found that first-bron children have more fat than younger ones. As family size decreases, firstbrons account for a greather share of the population. In 1964, british women gave birth to an average of 2.95 children;by 2005 that figure had fallen to 1.79. in the US in 1976, 9.6% of woman in their 40s had only one chile;in 2004 it was 17.4%. this combination of older mothers and more single children could be contributing to the obesity epidemic.

7.Like marrying like

Just as people pair off according to looks, so they do for size. Lean people are more likely to marry lean an d fat more likely to marry fat. On its own, like marrying like cannot account for any increase in obesity. But combined with others- particularly the fact that obesity is partly genetic, and that heavier people have more children-it amplifies the increase form other causes.

1. A)effects of obesity on people’s health

B)the link between lifestyle an obesity

C)New explanations for the obesity epidemic

D)possible ways to combat the obesity epidemic

2. A)gained the least weight

B)were inclined to eat less

C)found their vigor enhanced

D)were less susceptible to illness

3. A)it makes us sleepy

B)it causes sleep loss

C)it increases our appetite

D)it results from lack of sleep

4. A)it makes us stay indoors more

B)it accelerates our metabolic rate

C)it makes us feel more energetic

D)it contributes to our weight gain

5. A)it threatens their health

B)it heightens their spirits

C)it suppresses their appetite

D)it slows down their metabolism

6. A)heavy smokers

B)passive smokers

C)those who never smoke

D)those who quit smoking

7. A)the growing number of smokers among young people

B)the rising proportion of minorities in its population

C)the increasing consumption of high-calorie foods

D)the improving living standards of the poor people

8.according to the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the reason why older mothers’ children tend to be obese remains not entirely clear

9.According to Michael Symonds, one factor contributing to the obesity epidemic is decrease of family size

10 when two heavy people get married, chances of their children getting fat increase, because obesity is party

genetiz

Part III

Section A

11. A)He is quite easy to recognize

B)he is an outstanding speaker

C)he looks like a movie star

D)he looks young for his age

12. A)consult her dancing teacher

B)take a more interesting class

C)continue her dancing class

D)improve her dancing skills

13. A)the man did not believe what the woman said

B)the man accompanied the woman to the hospital

C)the woman may be suffering from repetitive strain injury

D)the woman may not followed the doctor’s instructions

14. A)they are not in style any more

B)they have cost him far too much

C)they no longer suit his eyesight

D)they should be cleaned regularly

15. A)he spilled his drink onto the floor

B)he has just finished wiping the floor

C)he was caught in a shower on his way home

D)he rushed out of the bath to answer the phone

16. A)fixing some furniture

B)repairing the toy train

C)reading the instructions

D)assembling the bookcase

17. A)urge Jenny to spend more time on study

B)help Jenny to prepare for the coming exams

C)act towards Jenny in a more sensible way、

D)send Jenny to a volleyball training center

18. A)The building of the dam needs a large budget

B)the proposed site is near the residential area

C)the local people fel insecure about the dam

D)the dam poses a threat to the local environment 

Question19 to21 are based on the conversation you have just heard

19 A. It saw the end of its booming years worldwide

B. Its production and sales reached record levels.

C. It became popular in some foreign countries

D. Its domestic market started to shrink rapidly.

20. A. They cost less.  

B. They tasted better. 

C. They were in fashion.

D. They were widely advertised.

21. A. It is sure to fluctuate .

B. It is bound to revive.

C. It will remain basically stable.

D. It will see no more monopoly

22. A. Organising protests 

B. Recruiting members 

C. Acting as its spokesman.

D. Saving endangered animals.

23. A. Anti-animal-abuse demonstrations 

B. Anti-nuclear campaigns

C. Surveying the Atlantic Ocean floor 

D. Removing industrial waste.

24. A. By harassing them.  

B. By appealing to the public

C. By taking legal action.

D. By resorting to force.

25. A. Doubtful

B. Reserved 

C. Indifferent

D. Supportive 

26. A, The air becomes still.  

B. The air pressure is low.

C. The clouds block the sun.  

D. The sky appears brighter.

27. A. Ancient people were better at foretelling the weather.

B. Sailors’saying about the weather are unreliable.

C. People knew long ago how to predict the weather.

D. It was easiter to forecast the weather in the old days.

28 A. Weather forecast is getting more accurate today.

B. People can predict the weather by their senses

C. Who are the real esperts in weather forecast .

D. Weather changes affect people’s life remarkably

29. A. They often feel insecure about their jobs.

B. They are unable to decide what to do first .

C. They are feel burdened with numerous tasks every day.

D they feel burdened with numerous tasks every day

30 A. Analyze them rationally. 

B. Draw a detailed to-do list .

C. Turn to others for help.

D. Handle them one by one .

31. A. They have accomplished little .

B. They feel utterly exhausted .

C. They have worked out a way to relax.

D. They no longer feel any sense of guilt.

32. A. Their performance may improve.

B. Their immune system may be reinforced

C. Their blood pressure may rise all of a sudden.

D. Their physical development may be enhanced.

33. A. Improved mental functioning 

B. Increased susceptibility to disease 

C. Speeding up of blood circulation   

D. Reduction of stress-related hormones

34. A. Pretend to be in better shape. 

B. Have more physical exercise . 

 C. Turn more often to friends for help

D. Pay more attention to bodily sensations.

35. A. Different approaches to coping with stress.

B. Various causes for serious health problems.

C. The relationship between stress and illness.

D. New finding of medical research on stress.

Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)

Section A

Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.

 

   One of the major producers of athletic footwear, with 2002 sales of over $10 billion, is a company called Nike, with corporate headquarters in Beaverton, Oregon. Forbes magazine identified Nike’s president, Philip Knight, as the 53rd-richest man in the world in 2004. But Nike has not always been a large multimillion-dollar organization. In fact, Knight started the company by selling shoes from the back of his car at track meets.

In the late 1950s Philip Knight was a middle-distance runner on the University of Oregon track team, coached by Bill Bowerman. One of the top track coaches in the U.S., Bowerman was also known for experimenting with the design of running shoes in an attempt to make them lighter and more shock-absorbent. After attending Oregon, Knight moved on to do graduate work at Stanford University; his MBA thesis was on marketing athletic shoes. Once he received his degree, Knight traveled to Japan to contact the Onitsuka Tiger Company, a manufacturer of athletic shoes. Knight convinced the company’s officials of the potential for its product in the U.S. In 1963 he received his first shipment of Tiger shoes, 200 pairs in total.

In 1964, Knight and Bowerman contributed $500 each to from Blue Ribbon Sports, the predecessor of Nike. In the first few years, Knight distributed shoes out of his car at local track meets. The first employees hired by Knight were former college athletes. The company did not have the money to hire “experts”, and there was no established athletic footwear industry in North America from which to recruit those knowledgeable in the field. In its early years the organization operated in an unconventional manner that characterized its innovative and entrepreneurial approach to the industry. Communication was informal; people discussed ideas and issues in the hallways, on a run, or over a beer. There was little task differentiation. There were no job descriptions, rigid reporting systems, or detailed rules and regulations. The team spirit and shared values of the athletes on Bowerman’s teams carried over and provided the basis for the collegial style of management that characterized the early years of Nikes. 

47. While serving as a track coach, Bowerman tried to design running shoes that were lighter and more shock-absorbent.

48. During his visit to Japan, Knight convinced the officials of the Onitsuka Tiger Company that its product would have potentials in the U.S.

49. Blue Ribbon Sports as unable to hire experts due to the absence of established athletic footwear in North America.

50. In the early years of Nike, communication within the company was usually carried out informally.

51. What qualities of Bowerman’s teams formed the basis of Nike’s early management style?

   The team spirit and shared valves of the athlets.

Passage one

questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage

 

sustainable development is applied to just about eberything from energy to clean water and economic growth,and as a result it has become difficult to question either the basic assumptions behind it or the way the concept is put to use.this is especially true in agriculture,where sustainable development is often taken as the sole measure of progress without a proper appreciation of histrorcal and cultural perspectives.

To start with,it is important to remember that the nature of agriculture has changed markedly throughout history,and will continue to do so .medieval agriculture in northern Europe fed,clothed and shelered a predominantly rural society with a much lower population density than it is today.it had minimal effect on biodiversity,and any pollution it caused was typically localized.in termsof energy use and the nutrients captured in the product it was relatively inefficient.

Contrast this with farming since the start of the industrial revolution.competion from overseas led farmers to specialize and increase yields.throughout this period food became cheaper,safe and more reliable.however,these changes have alsoled to habitat loss and to diminishing biodiversity.

What’smore,demand for animal products in developing countrics is growing so fast that meeting it will require an extra 300 million tons of grain a year by 2050.yet the growth of cities and in dustry is reducing the amount of water available for agriculture in many regions.

All this means that agriculture in the 21st century will have to be very different from how it was in the 20th.this will require radical thinking.for example,we need to move away from the idea that traditional practices are inevitably more sustainable than new ones.we also need to abandon the notion that agriculture can be “zero impact”. The key will be to abandon the rather simple and static measures of sustainability,which centre on the need to maintain production without increasing damage.instead we need a more dynamic interpretation,one that looks at the pros and cons of all the various way land is used.there are many different ways to measure agricultural performance besides food yield:energy use, environmental costs,water purity,carbon footprint and biodiversity. It is clear, for example,that the carbon of transporting tomatoes from spain to the UK

Is less than that of producing them in the UK with additional heating and lighting.but we do not know whether lower carbon footprints will always be better for biodiversity.

What is crucial is recognizing that sustainable agriculture is not just about sustainable food production.

52. How do people ofen measure progress in agriculture?

   A) By its productivity   C) By its impact on the environmet

   B) By its sustainability  D) By its contribution to economic growth

53. Specialisation and the effort to incease yields have esulted in________.

   A) Localised pollution   C) competition from overseas

   B) the shrinking of farmland D) the decrease of biodiversity

54.What does the author think of traditional farming practices?

   A)They have remained the same over the centuries

   B)They have not kept pace with population growth

   C)They are not necessarily sustainable

   D)They are environmentally friendly

55.What will agriculture be like in the 21st century

   A) It will go through radical changes

   B) It will supply more animal products

   C) It will abandon traditional farming practices

   D) It will cause zero damage to the environment

56 What is the author’s purpose in writing this passage?

  A) To remind people of the need of sustainable development

  B) To suggest ways of ensuring sustainable food production

  C) To adance new criteria for measuring farming progress

  D) To urge people to rethink what sustainable agriculture is

Passage Two

Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage

  The percentage of immigrants(including those unlawfully present) in the United states has been creeping upward for years. At 12.6 percent, it is now higher than at any point ince the mid1920s

  We are not about to go back to the days when Congress openly worried about inferior races polluing America’s bloodstream. But once again we are wondering whether we have too many of the wrong sort fo necomers.Their loudest citecs argue that the new wave of immigrants cannot,and indeed do not want to, fit in as previous generations did.

  We now know that these racist views were wrong.In time, Italians, Romanians and members of other so-called inferior races became exemplary Americans and contributed greatly, in ways too numerous to detail , to the building of this magnificent nation. There is no reason why these new immigrants should not have the same success.

  Although children of Mexican immigrants do better, in terms of educational and professional attainment, than thir parents UCLA sociologist Edward Telles has found that the gains don’t continme. Indeed, the fouth generation is marginally worse off than the third James Jackson,of the University of Michigan,has foud a simila rend among black Caribbean immigrants,Tells fears that Mexican-Americans may be fated to follow in the footsteps of American blacks-that largeparts of the community may become mired in a seemingly state of poverty and Underachievement . Like African-Americans, Mexican-americans are increasingly relegated to (降入)segregated, substandyrd schools, and their dropout rate is the highest for any 儿童会nic group in the country.

       We have learned much about the foolish idea of excluding people on the presumption of the ethnic/racial inferiority. But what we have not yet learned is how to make the process of Americanization work for all. I am not talking about requiring people to learn English or to adopt American ways; those things happen pretty much on their own, but as arguments about immigration hear up the campaign trail, we also ought to ask some broader question about assimilation, about ho wto ensure that people , once outsiders , don’t fovever remain marginalized within these shores.

      That is a much larger question than what should happen with undocumented workers, or how best to secure the border, and it is one that affects not only newcomers but groups that have been here for generations. It will have more impact on our future than where we decide to set the admissions bar for the lasest ware of would-be Americans. And it would be nice if we finally got the answer right.

57.How were immigrants viewed by U.S. Congress in early days?

A)They were of inferior races.

B)They were a Source of political corruption.

C)They were a threat to the nation’s security.

D)They were part of the nation’s bloodstream.

 

58.What does the author think of the new immigrants?

A)They will be a dynamic work force in the U.S.

B)They can do just as well as their predecessors.

C)They will be very disappointed on the new land.

D)They may find it hard to fit into the mainstream.

 

59.What does Edward Telles’ research say about Mexican-Americans?

A)They may slowlu improve from generation to generation.

B)They will do better in terms of deucationl attainment.

C)They will melt into the African-American community.

D)They may forever remain poor and underachieving.

 

60.What should be done to help the new immigrants?

A)Rid them of their inferiority complex.

B)Urge them to adopt American customs.

C)prevent them from being marginalized.

D)Teach them standard American English.

 

61.According to the author,the burning issue concerning immigrationg is_______.

A)how to deal with people entering the U.S. without documents

B)how to help immigrants to better fit into American society

C)how to stop illegal immigrants from crossing the corder

D)how to limit the number of immigrants to enter the U.S.

Part V

Individuals and businesses have legal protection for intellectual property they create and own . intellectual proper _62_from creative thinking and may include products, 63  processes, and ideas. Intellectual property is protected  64  misapproprition(盗用)Misappropriation is taking the Intellectual propetty of others withour ____65____ compensation and using it for monetary gain.

       Legal protection is provided for the ___66___of intellectual propetty. The three common types of legal protection are patents, copyrights, and trademarks.

       Patents provide exclusive use of inventions. If the u.s patent office __67__ a patent, it is confirmind that the intellectual property is ___68____. The patent prevents others from making ,using, or selling the invention without the owner’s __69___ for a period of 20 years.

       Copyright are similar to patents __70___that they are applied to artistic works. A copyright protects the creator of an __72___artisitic or intellectual work, such as a song or a novel. A copyright gives the owner wxclusive rights to copy, __72___ display, or perform the work . the copyright prevents others from using and selling the work , the __73___ of a copyright is typically the lifetime of the author

 

62 retrieves

deviates

results

departs

 

63

services

reservers

assumptions

motions

 

64

for

with

by

from

 

65

sound

partial

due

random

 

66

users

owners

masters

executives

 

67

affords

affiliates

funds

grants

 

68

solemn

sober

unique

universal

 

69

perspective

permission

conformity

consensus

 

70

except

besides

eyond

despite

 

71

absolute

alternative

original

orthodox

 

72

presume

stimulate

nominate

distribute

 

73

range

length

scale

extent

74  an additional 70 years.                              74 A) plus     C) via

  Trademarks are words, names, or symbols that             B) versus    D) until

Identify the manufacturer of a product and  75 it           75 A) distract   C) distinguish

from similar goods of others.  A servicemark is               B)differ      D) disconnect

similar to a trademark 76  is used to identify               76 A) or       C) so

services. A trademark prevents others from using              B) but       D) whereas

the  77 or a similar word, name, or symbol to               77 A) identical  C) literal

                                                      B) analogical  D) parallel

take advantage of the recognition and 78 of the               78 A) ambiguity  C) popularity

brand or to create confusion in the marketplace.                B) utility      D) proximity

79 registration, a trademark is usually granted                79 A) From      C) Before

                                                        B) Over      D) Upon

for a period of ten years. It can be  80  for                 80 A)recurred      C) recalled

                                                     B) renewed      D) recovered

additional  ten-year periods indefinitely as 81 as            81 A)long      C) far

the mark’s use continues.                                  B)soon    D) well

Part VI      Translation    (5 minutes)

 

Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.

Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答,只需写出译文部分。

82. He designed the first suspension bridge , which made a perfect combination of beauty and function. (把美观与功能完美地结合起来)。

83.It was very dark, but Mary seemed to know which way to take instinctively. (本能地知道该走哪条路。)

84. I don’t think it advisable that parents (should) deprive children of their freedom (剥夺孩子们的自由) to spend their spare time as they wish.

85. Older adults who have a high level of daily activities have more energy and a lower death rate compared with relatively inactive people

(与不那么活跃的人相比死亡率要低)。

86.Your resume should attract a would-be boss’s attention by demonstrating why you would be the best candidate.

(为什么你是某个特定职位的最佳人选)。

 

 

 
 
 
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